Sunday, November 26, 2017

Beetle Talk for the Butterfly Society

On Tuesday, November the 28th at 7 PM, I am giving a talk about the Beetles of Arizona for the Tucson Butterfly Society at the Lutheran Church in the Foothills. Given that I am working on a book with that title together with Arthur V. Evans for years now, the topic is obviously one of my faves. I hope that the lep folks get excited about it too!

My 5 posters will be available after the talk: Butterflies, Moths, Arachnids, True Bugs and Beetles.

Sunday, October 22, 2017

We need Connections, not Walls!

Ocelot and Mexican Amberwing, watercolor October2017
 I live in Tucson, Arizona. 30.7 miles, or 50 kilometers, or 44 min by car from the US/Mexico border. In my dual role as artist and biologist I spend much of my time in the field. Tucson is surrounded by the Sonoran Desert. As deserts go, the lower Sonoran is beautiful and rich in geological formations and fauna and flora. But also hot and dry most of the year. The long drive to the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon in northern Arizona  would take me through the endlessly sprawling metropolis of Phoenix. So I turn south instead. The borderland to Mexico, studded with sky islands and the first hints of the Sierra Madre Occidental has become my favorite hunting ground.  I regularly join  excursions to study the biodiversity south of the border wit groups of US and Mexican naturalists and biologists. More often, and on my own, I spend time just north of the border. Long dirt roads connect the Canelo Hills and the San Rafael Grasslands, Parker Lake and Copper Canyon, Sycamore Canyon and Arivaca. Many side roads take me directly to the border fence. There are often heavy truck barriers, but they are low enough to step over. In other places, tall metal beams, set too close to each other to squeeze through, form a more impressive interruption of the landscape, but it still seems penetrable for small wildlife and cougars have been shown to jump it. In Lochiel, an old, nearly abandoned border town south of Patagonia, AZ, I used to pet Mexican horses grazing on the other side of an old chain link fence with big holes.  It's a quiet area, somehow suspended in time, and full of natural beauty.
It's not all paradise. In many areas along the fence, there is a wide gash in the vegetation, where border patrol erased every living thing to create a corridor for easy surveillance. There are strange contraptions that the agents can pull behind their trucks to sweep the ground so new tracks of border crossers show up clearly.   There is thrash that crossing people abandoned and sometimes clearly the packing material from drug transports. There are water stations that good Samaritans established because the harsh desert claimed so many lives. Very occasionally I meet people who approach me for help - who ask for water or need a charge for their phones. Or even a connection to the next agents of 'la migra'. The white, green-barred  SUVs of the border patrol agents are usually not far away, always cruising, waiting, watching ... but also often the last resort for people in need. The agents keep up the immigration restriction that US law dictates, but  so far, the situation is very different from what we experienced in the Europe of my childhood along the Iron Curtain and most of all the Wall and Death Stripe of Berlin. I can only hope that it stays that way.  

Saturday, October 21, 2017

Under a full Moon

Ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) watercolor, available
When you spend as many summer nights as I out in the canyons of Arizona and Mexico, you will sometimes hear rustling in the trees above, bumping noises on a roof or little chittering voices. Little faces with dark eyes under big ears peer at you from behind branches. They jump and climb with ease, trailing a long, luxurious tail, banded in black-and white. But since it's usually dark when ringtails show themselves, I never caught more than a glimpse.
At Carr house in the Huachucas we saw a regular visitor high on the roof, slipping in and out of the beam of our flash lights. Similar fleeting impressions were left by a couple of them very high up in a tree during a black lighting session in Ida Canyon further south. At my friend Pat Sullivan's and Lisa Lee's house I wanted to check the black light at the bug room one more time before sun rise and found myself face to face with the resident Ringtail who had had the same idea. We both jumped and he retreated.  Once I slept under the stars at the Madrone Ranger station in the Rincons - when I got up a Ringtail had just tucked himself into a crucked branch above my head to spend the day. Most encounters where ghostly and swift. No photos.
But during our August trip to the Sierra Juriquipa in Sonora Mexico one of our group, Steve Minter, wasn't giving up so easily. At nightfall, he saw a little guy watching him from a tree branch, so Steve climbed after the ringtail, up into the tree, camera and all. One name for Ringtails is Miner's  Cat, but in fact, the little racoon relatives are better acrobats than even cats. So why did it not run?  Steve was wearing a bright headlight - so maybe it was the 'deer in the headlights' effect or maybe the ringtail knew that the thinner branches would not support even the most daring human - anyway, the miner's cat stayed put and Steve got a number of nice photographs. This painting was inspired by them.

Ringtails are omnivores that feed on everything from bird eggs to berries, lizards and bugs. They like rocky areas with crevices  and cavities for their dens and they tend to live close to water. I keep thinking of them as typical southwestern animals, but they can be found from southwestern Oregon, south through California, southern Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, eastern Kansas, Baja California and northern Mexico. I have sometimes seen a couple of them together, but those may have been litter mates or a female with a sub-adult kid. Normally ringtails live solitary in small territories. 

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

She loves me, she loves me not ...

'She loves me, she loves me not'   Peachfaced Lovebird Watercolor, October 2017
Finally back at the easel - no actually, I just made some room for my stretched paper next to my computer. Watercolors need to lie rather flat if you want to use any wet-in-wet technique.

The little gregarious parrots in the genus Agapornis were brought over from Africa for the pet trade. Escaped or released by unconscientious breeders, they found backyards and parks in the Phoenix area quite hospitable. Humans like them because they are pretty and their antics are entertaining. So the Love Birds find feeders and bird baths filled.  As cavity breeders, they appreciate the work of Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers. A peachy head poking out of a Saguaro cavity delights many valley (Phoenix) photographers. As a biologist I cringe, though. There is no telling yet what the impact of this invasive species will be. Can they adapt to real desert conditions and seriously compete with native Saguaro breeders? I got the impression that house sparrows (from Europe) manage to do so to a degree, while the European Starlings seem to stay around urban and agricultural neighborhoods and golf courses. This does not mean they are not depriving our endemic birds of prime 'oasis' living space. So far, the Peach-faces seem to stick to the Phoenix area and some backyard bird watchers in Tucson are clamoring to see them here. Tucson, with its proximity to the southeastern sky islands could be the jump-off point for the birds to colonize the sky islands. To me, a night mare.  So I love them (in Africa) and love them not (in Arizona).

Monday, October 9, 2017

Sycamore Canyon with Leslie, Sue and Curtis

In southern Arizona, October can still be a pretty good month for insect ans spider observations. So the four of us headed west on Ruby Road for Sycamore Canyon in Santa Cruz County.
Close to Pena Blanca Lake, Ruby Road turns into a dirt Road that winds its way up through the Atascosa and later the Pajarito Mountains.

Montezuma Quail
We spotted a family of Montezuma Quail by the side of the road - I think there was a dozen of half grown chicks hiding among the dry grasses. The male brought up the rear and posed nicely, but my macro lens was not quite up to the task.

Our target, Sycamore Canyon, extends from Ruby Road south towards the Mexican border. Many north-migrating arrivals, people as well as new insect species, enter the US here.

It's a lush, beautiful place, not the hard unforgiving desert that claims so many lives, but border patrol keeps a permanent presence. We met an agent peacefully lunching in the shade way up the canyon. We also came across a big cache of supplies for the greatest needs of human wanderers. 

Leslie Brown Eguchi and Sue Carnahan
This late in the year, the upper canyon was rather dry. Usually it's swampy and wet where Leslie and Sue are discussing a botanical question here. Several of the small water holes in the upper canyon were completely empty.

Further down, fish were crowded in little remaining ponds, but the rare chubb species that occur here are well adapted and can survive buried deep down in mud if they have to.

Neon Skimmer
Flame Skimmer

I think I saw my first Flame skimmers here years ago, and they were around again!  They mingled, or rather competed for perches, with their relatives, the Flame Skimmers. So we could clearly see their different coloration and also how the red extends much less into the wings of the Neon Skimmers. Obviously, the two species can be found sharing the same habitat.

Rhantus gutticollis,, Boreonectes sp, , Laccophilus fasciatus, Thermonectus nigrofasciatus,
Rhantus atricolor, Thermonectus marmoratus
In many places the water was not very deep, so aquatic beetles were easy to see and to catch. Several Sunburst Beetles shared one puddle with at least 5 other, less flashy species of Predaceous Diving Beetles.

Grasses and perennials setting fruit
Outside of the riparian zone, the grassland was yellow and most flowers had gone to seed. An army of black tenebrionid beetles was feeding on the starchy fresh seeds. Unlike their earthbound relatives, the crepuscular Pinacate Beetles, these smaller darkling beetles in the subfamily Pimellinae fly well and congregated not just to feed but also to mate among the wind-blown grasses.
Ericydeus lautus, Conotrachelus arizonicus, Zygogramma continua
Collops grandis, Lobometopon fusiforme or related Pimelinae, Phaenus quadridens
I also spotted some weevils (most are night active here in the desert). All conpostite genera seem to have their own, host-specific Zygogramma (Leaf Beetle) species. Many Melyrids (Soft-winged Flower Beetles) were out hunting - if I'm not wrong the larger Collops is feasting on a smaller Attalus in my photo. There was a small heard of black cattle watching our every move and noisily commenting on it. In the dung were mostly imported  Euoniticellus intermedius but I also pulled a dead Rainbow Scarab out of the mud at the creek.

Only very little water washed over my favorite bedrock area, but a dragonfly photographer was set up to patiently wait for a rare damselfly that had been reported from here recently.

Desert Firetails et al - Damseflies by Lealie Brown Eguchi
 We were just as happy to watch more ordinary species. The mating activity was still in full swing. Especially interesting was the mate guarding of most Damsel males that does not only allow the male to keep close control of 'his' female until their eggs are deposited, but also enables some females to safely submerse most of their bodies to place eggs in vegetation deep under the water surface.

Piezogaster spurcus and Pselliopus near zebra
Many true bugs were still active. Those 'suckers' seem to be especially well adapted to dry conditions. We also found water specialists in ponds and puddles: Gelastocoris oculatus (Big-Eyed Toad Bug) on the water surface and big, round Abedus herberti lurking well hidden in the brown water.

Phidippus octopunctatus and P apacheanus males

The activity time of the larger jumping spiders seems to be nearly over. Several females had sealed themselves in with their eggs - we saw hardly any silken retreats that were still open. A few males were still literally hanging out in the grasses.

Arctosa litoralis spinning electric blue silk?
Wolf Spiders raced and jumped among the moist leaf litter close to the creek and also skimmed over the water supported by nothing but surface tension. 

Tarantula Hawk
A Tarantula Hawk who was clearly at the end of her strenuous hunting life still ran and searched and twitched close to the wolf spiders. I think she would make do with one of them if she could. Not every Pepsis egg actually lands on a big tarantula.  Dwarf forms of big Pespsis species can often be observed and may result from unfortunate larvae that were left with just a small spider to devour.

Zenodoxus rubens Photo Sue Canahan
On our way home we stopped at the campground close to Pena Blanca lake, mainly so Sue Carnahan could identify the bush that has provided a number of interesting leaf beetles before. It turned out to be the Desert Honeysuckle Anisacanthus thurberi as expected. A nice Sesiid (Clearwing Moth) added a  last highlight to this late-season trip. The reported host of this moth (stem or root borere) is in the family Malvaceae, but it sure payed a lot of attention to the Honeysuckle 

Thursday, September 21, 2017

September in Picture Rocks

Our resident pair of ravens visits regularly, but by now without this year's brood of 3. I hope the kids moved on and are healthy! Our dogs have no patients for the ravens' performance of bows and songs of clicks and clucks.

Our biggest Diamondback Rattler by far
Lots of snake activity lately. One night, this 5 footer was caught in our gate. While I held the head, Randy cut him loose. We are a practiced team by now.  This rattler turns up every time when Randy waters the Aloes in front of the house. On the path from the patio we have 2 smaller regulars.

Small Diamondback Rattler
A very tiny Long-nosed Snake
I'm outside at night quite often: there are cacti that only bloom in the dark, Pocket mice rustle on the ground, toads and geckos are hunting and also a very nice little tarantula.

Lesser Long-nosed Bats  Photo by a FB friend
But the most special visitors are the long-nosed bats that regularly empty hummingbird feeders all over Tucson. Randy is quite tired of refilling them every morning. I like the secretive flutter.

White Thorn Acacia
It's still quite hot, so we take our walks into the state-land early, when the shadow of Twin Peak (singular now) still covers our path. Or I make a short late afternoon trip down one of the deeply gauged washes.  White-thorn acacia bushes sprouted fresh leaves and flowers after the rains and are now covered in delicate red pods.

Gyascutus caelatus
A surprising sight: A big Jewel Beetle Gyascutus caelatus is checking the acacia for its  host-plant potential. I used to travel to the Santa Rita Mountains to see these beetles.

Saguaros and Palo Verdes at dusk. Tortollitas in the back
Already, we are thirsting for more rain. The monsoon was good, but could still be better ... but the Saguaros plumped up nicely and the Palo Verdes and Ocotillos sprouted a new crop of leaves..

Laika, now definitely an elderly wolf dog, is still excited about our walks, but today she returned home early.  Randy had stayed home and she probably just missed him.

Mecki and Bilbo tired themselves out too, racing and digging, and trying to find the cattle that is somewhere out there.

Laika was faithfully waiting for us at the gate by the garage. Even though I wasn't worried when she disappeared, I was still happy to find her there.

For the pups it's now time for a dip in the tub. That means that the will not come into the house until dry. In theory. In praxis, Mecki just stormed through the door and is now licking his feet on the carpet right behind me.  Oh well. It's dark by now and the rattlers are roaming.

Thursday, July 13, 2017

Santa Rita Mts after the first rains of monsoon 2017

Megathymus ursus, Ursus Giant Skipper
On big rocks in a creek bed with a little water I found a strikingly big Skipper: Megathymus ursus, Ursus Giant Skipper
Butterfly folks always ask if I see these. Now I know why, this is one very impressive skipper! Big and heavy! Rare enough to for mine to be the first for AZ on, even though the type-location is the Catalina Mts in Pima Co (Type-location: where the originally described specimen was found). The inside of the wings has yellowish-gold markings, but It would not sit still to have those photographed.

Campsomeris ephippium male
 Another giant, though his female is even bigger, is this Scoliid Wasp, Campsomeris ephippium reaches more than 2 inches in length. Also impressive was his reaction to being pushed around a little: He made rather convincing stinging motions extending the retractible "trident" at the apex of the abdomen. Those sclerotized genitalia plus that behavior are a good example of intra-species Batesian mimicry.(note: only female hymenopterans have a stinger and venom glands, because the stinger is the ovipositor).
The females are usually busy scouting the ground for big scarab larvae, but males can be found nectaring on flowers. These Mexican wasps are now permanent residents in SE Arizona including the Catalinas (Sabino Canyon). I think we saw the first ones around 2010 in the Huachuca Mountains.

Triscolia ardens females
 There were more Scoliids on the same Acacia - just after the first rains, there were not too many blooming plants. These ladies were big for their kind,- over 3 cm long. Triscolia ardens are quite variable in size. I'm not quite sure if I'm not misidentifying a similar species at times. But individuals of many parasitic species develop by the luck of the draw - dependent on the size of the host that their mother was able to find.

Pogonomyrmex sp. mating
The rain triggered a mating frenzy among Harvester Ants. Hundred of alates (winged males and females ready to mate) crawled and flew to the top of a telephone pole. Up there they did their aerial dance during which males grabbed females and together they tumbled to the ground, usually three to four males per female. I wanted to collect some for the research project of a friend. It was slightly disconcerting to have my most feared nemesis rain down on me by the dozens, but I figured they'd be too busy to sting. I was kind of right: the ones that fell into my shirt from above did no harm...but a lowly worker did crawl up my pant leg. Before I had my boot of and could drop the pants, I got three stings from her.  Still red, hard and itchy three days later.

 A nice Mydas Fly along Proctor Road.
Ammophila Wasp and a nice metallic bee
Macrodactylus uniformis (Western Rose Chafers)
Anomala nimbosa pair
Euphoria monticola (Photo Sue Carnahan) and Euphoria leucographa
Euphoria spp. are day active scarabs. Probably mostly males were flying - in search of females. The pretty green E. monticola stayed in the understory of oak forest, while E. leucographa was 'hill-topping' (aggregations flying around the top of the tree) around all kinds of tall trees in the grassland.

The long face of Lycus arizonensis
Cicindela sedecimpunctata
On the rocks along the creek: our most common Tiger Beetle, not yet in great numbers. 

Arhaphe cicindeloides
Not far from the Tiger Beetle, I found  a nymph of the Largid (Bordered Plant Bugs)  Arhaphe cicindeloides. This species seems to imitate the behavior of the tigers, but if that is mimicry or just being smart and fast when chased I don't know.

Mecki  would like to point out that all the photos above, except the Pogo ones, where a cooperative effort.  From Bear Skippers to Tiger Beetles, we faced and stalked them all of them together, connected by the legally prescribed leash.  How else would she keep the camera steady?

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

Rediscovering the lost species Adoceta ignita (Lycidae)

Lycus sanguinipennis, Lygistopterus rubripennis, Lycus fulvellus femoratus, Lycus arizonensis
 Two weeks ago, I posted this series of Lycids (Net-winged Beetles) from Mount Lemmon on my blog. Joe Cicero, a friend and former college who has moved to Florida and now probably misses Tucson, commented that there is another smaller species on the mountain.

Joe Cicero's collection of Adoceta apicalis
He was talking about Adoceta apicalis  which he described as a small look-a-like of Lygistopterus rubripennis. In 1950 two North American species in the genus Adoceta were described by Green from only very few specimens each. It seems that no others were found for a long time, maybe until Joe discovered a few specimens some years ago under pine bark on Mt. Lemmon. These were Adoceta apicalis. They are smaller than the Lycids I showed last week, the wings quite parallel sided, and head and pronotum is black. The elytra end in an apical black band.  Joe challenged me to find more of them.

  Lyomorpha regulus, small Milkweed Bug,  Sisenes championi, Ptychoglene phrada.
Last Wednesday, Ceanothus fendleri and Ceanothus integerrimus were in full bloom along the path that crosses an area that was heavily burned several years ago. There were plenty of red and orange things crawling on the flowers, from false blister beetles to moths, seed bugs and tarantula hawks (not pictured).

Some strange Lycids
Leslie Eguchi and I were shooting pictures of many different flower visitors and eventually came across an accumulation of small, narrow Lycids that were mating on the blooming bushes. There seemed to be many dozens of them. (Joe Cicero explains that Lycids not only congregate to mate, the females also come together and oviposit in groups. He thinks that I may have happened upon a mass emergence from a 'group-clutch' like that.)

Mating pair of Adoceta ignita
I was thrilled that I had found Joe's species. But being part of a group of naturalists who usually don't collect and who might be offended, I only collected a few specimens, making sure to get males (there were many) and females (much fewer) both.
Later, from home I sent photos to Joe to report proudly "mission accomplished".

I was pretty disappointed when Joe at first glance called my beetles 'just small Lycus sanguinipennis'  - he had immediately noticed that the pronotum of these guys wasn't black ... and then he thought that maybe I had a new species ...

Male and female of Adoceta ignita
 When I posted my photo on our SW  Arthropods page on Facebook, Arthur Evans had the great idea to share it with an international group that concentrates on a related beetle family, the Soldier Beetles, Net-winged Beetles (Lycids) and Soldier Beetles (Cantharids) are similar enough to interest some of the same taxonomists, and soon we heard back from Michael Geiser in Switzerland:
"It keys out as Adoceta ignita Green, 1950, a species I've never seen before (so the ID is just based on the description). A. ignita was described from two specimens from Arizona and is apparently very rare. I don't know how many times it was found after the description." Soon other specialists in the field like Michael Ivie and Vinicius Ferreira were alerted to our quest and agreed wit Michael Geiser's ID.

We also learned that there is an ongoing discussion about the taxonomic status of the genus Adoceta. In their 2017 paper Motyka et al. merged the genus Adoceta with the genus Lygistopterus. But since until now there were only so few specimens of the American species, these were not part of the genetic sequencing that the study was based on. We will now send a specimen to the lab around Bocak - I'm curious what the result will be. I also thought I would get up the mountain in time to collect a few more specimens, but right now Catalina Highway is closed because of an out of control wild fire. So I'm afraid the species I found may just get lost again.

so far unidentified specimen which has to be another A.ignita in the SWRS collection
 After this blog was published, I got an email from Michele Lanan, the new resident scientist at the AMNH's Southwestern Research Station in the Chiricahuas. She checked the holdings of their collection because every AZ sky island (and Sonoran, too?)   may provide similar habitats, at the right elevation, to the Ceanothus areas in the Catalinas. Sure enough, a so far unidentified treasure was found.  

References to cited papers will be added later