Monday, April 17, 2017

Easter walk at Saguaro National Park West



It was dry and hot and dusty. Of the wildflowers that the rainy (or here, not so rainy) winter had produced, only dry stalks and seed pods remained. Chollas and prickly pair were blooming, but I've seen better.


Insects were scarce. A bee fly with the ominous genus name Anthrax found the moisture and salt of my hand irresistible.


Foothills Palo Verdes, in beautiful bloom all over Picture Rocks, hardly showed any flowers here. But Ironwood trees were loaded with bursting buds.

There are few Mesquite Trees in the park and their flowers were past their prime. Still, they were the best source for beetles that I could find.

Megalostomis subfasciata

Coleothorpa axillaris
 Clytrin Leaf Beetles were flying around the fresh leaves, maybe searching spots to lay eggs.


Some mesquite catkins were covered in huge aggregations of mating Lycids. Often there are 2 species involved, but this time all I could find were Lucaina marginata , no L. discoidalis.

Lucaina marginata


They shared the catkins with many tiny Dermestid, Melyrid beetles and tiny Perdita Bees whose color is so close to that of the Mesquite flowers that it may take a second look to find them.


With its bee-like flight (the dark elytra stay folded over the body) Acmaeodera griffithi  could be overlooked by the beetle collector. Because I was trying to photograph solitary bees, I inadvertently focused on the Buprestid.


 While manipulating the Mesquite flowers to photograph the Perdita Bee, 2 tiny beetles landed on my hand. They are both  Dasytinae in the family Melyridae genus Trichochrous, the smaller one likely to be T. ferrugineus. (Thnks to Doug Yanega for getting this information from Adriean Mayor)

After only a quarter mile along the dusty road, our dogs were quite ready to go home to a drink and a bath in the tub. So this was a very short 'Osterspaziergang' but I could not completely let go of that lovely tradition.


Tuesday, April 11, 2017

As thick as thieves - a bee and a moth

The sky islands of Arizona are treasure islands for naturalists. When the desert wildflowers wilt in the per-summer heat of April and May, in these mountain ranges spring is only beginning. One of my favorite mountains is Mount Graham in eastern Arizona. On its highest elevations, it has beautiful mixed conifer areas and mountain meadows.

Mertensia macdougalii.
 in early summer, a herbaceousl plant in the family Borraginaceae covers acres of these meadows: Mertensia macdougalii. The flowers are set in swirls typical for this family. They are blue when fresh but change color to purple and pink when they age - probably due to ph changes in the aging flowers. They remind me very much of  Pulmonaria, an early spring herald of European forests.
Studying those flowers (looking for bugs on them) I soon noticed little injuries on the upper part most of the drooping flowers. The culprits were obvious too: bees were chewing through the side of the flower's throat to get to the nectar, instead of laboriously crawling into the flower. Easier on the bees, but of course this way, the flowers were probably left unpollinated. The bees that I observed were all of one species in the genus Colletes.


Colletes sp. bee chewing into the side of the flower to get to the nectar
Many Colletes are specialists, foraging for pollen on only one group of plants (Wilson and Messinger Carril). Even though my Mnt. Graham species is not identified and Mertensia is not mentioned in the bee-plant pairings of the book by Wilson and Merringer Carril, I may have stumbled on another such pair, or I just happened upon a group of bees (they are non-social but often nest in aggregations) that had found a good easy nectar source and stuck to it for the time being for reasons of efficiency (constancy principle).

middle: Colletes bee. right: damaged flower; left: moth
But I may have observed a clue that points to a long established relationship, which in this case is based on thievery: After trying to photograph the thieving bees for a while and thus establishing a search image for them, I realized that I was repeatedly looking not at a bee, but at a moth that was using the bee-created access to the nectar source.  Interstingly, the moth (Caloreas apocynoglossa) was always sitting head down while the bees would sit head-up. However, the moths' wing pattern 'took that into account': a dark hind-end  gave the impression of the dark head of the bee, even including antennae, and  a light patch imitated the  reflection on the bee's wings.

Moth Caloreas apocynoglossa
Two  interpretations are possible:
The bees may be armed with a painful sting - at least in comparison with a helpless moth. Predators would avoid bees and moths. So this would be direct Batesian mimicry.
But solitary bees are not usually heavily defended and many birds feed on them.

Another possibility is that the moth gains some protection from its head-down orientation: Flycatchers tend to grab their prey by head and thorax, in this case the pretend-bee-thorax - so the moth may be able to escape from the misdirected attack with minor hind-wing injuries (same idea as in hairstreaks).

But: If the relationship between bee and moth is old and established enough to have resulted in adaptive changes in behavior and pattern of the moth, it may be save to assume that the relationship of this Colletes species and Mertensia macdougalii is even older and that the bees are specialists. Too bad for the plant then, that these bees are specialized thieves!

Quoted: Thee Bees in your Backyard by JS Wilson, OM Carril, Priceton University Press 2016